The Livonian War is a triumph of diplomacy. How Ivan the Terrible won against the West


He relies on diplomacy. A huge wave came up. Say, if you don’t get rid of your Catholic who occupied my lands right now, then I won’t enter your coalition, in which case I won’t fight the Turks, but, on the contrary, I’ll open a “big window” for them, and then manage them. So it's a draw? Here is how Montaigne responds to the words of the ambassador and the tsar: “He called on the pope to mediate in the war that the king of Poland waged with the Russian tsar, referring to the fact that if a neighbor weakens the Russian tsar, he will become incapable of another war, which will open a great window for the Turks to come to us". However, the main burden from the shoulders of the Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible fell precisely in January 1582. It was a brilliant move by Ivan the Terrible. It so happened that the famous French philosopher, writer and political figure Michel de Montaigne, who described in some detail the affairs of the “ambassador of Muscovy.” It must be said that the Frenchman was deeply impressed both by the appearance of the Russian ambassador, who overshadowed all those present with the richness of his clothes, and by his dignity: having received evidence that the emperor himself was subject to this rite, for the example of the kings was not enough for him. The visit of the Jesuit Antonio Possevino to the camp of the Polish king, who was already relishing and dreaming of seizing solid Russian territories, put an end to these dreams. In a word, a difficult person who possessed an incredible gift of persuasion. Possevino skillfully put pressure on Stefan Batory and actually played on the side of Ivan the Terrible. And from a military point of view, there is absolutely nothing to oppose him. 
At this critical moment, Ivan the Terrible shows himself as a shrewd, intelligent, cunning and dodgy sovereign, perfectly versed in European politics. Batory's detachments also occupy the Smolensk and Chernihiv regions. Moreover, it did not cost him anything, except for the overhead costs of the ambassador's trip to Rome. But more than anything else, Montaigne, and even Gregory XIII, was struck by the speeches of the ambassador. Antonio Possevino. At the same time, the Crimean Tatars and even the Turks constantly threatened the state from the south, so the war was fought, in fact, on two fronts. The new Polish king in a matter of years not only wins back all the acquisitions of Ivan the Terrible, but also invades the territory of the Russian kingdom. Photo: Commons.wikimedia.org
Exactly the same thing happened now. Just yesterday, no one in Europe even cared about the war waged by the Russian Tsar. True, it was not a military victory. And now, as if by magic, this topic has become almost the most important. By and large, the tsar at that time stopped the disastrous war with the West with the hands of the West itself. It is he who is considered one of the ideological inspirers of the Bartholomew night. The King of the Commonwealth Stefan Batory was forced to abandon plans to capture and hold the western Russian regions and clear the lands that belonged to the Rurikovich from time immemorial. And the Yam-Zapolsky Treaty, in fact, fixed the pre-war borders of the Russian kingdom, which, in general, did not lose anything in 1582. Chorikov B. An impressive diplomatic victory, which, unfortunately, is reluctant to talk about. In return, Grozny gave him everything he had conquered in the Baltic. But then a catastrophe happened. But it is not at all with the king of the Commonwealth that he agrees to end the war. The embassy leaves for Rome. Источник aif.ru Or rather, the speeches of the Russian Tsar, which the ambassador only broadcast. Stefan Batory captures the entire Pskov land with the exception of Pskov itself, which falls into a severe siege. Just a statement of fact, spiced with a hidden threat. He knew perfectly well that a coalition of Christian sovereigns had long been discussed in Rome, which would drive the Turks out of Europe, and at the right moment he pulled this trump card out of his sleeve. 440 years ago, on January 15, 1582, in the village of Kiverova Gora, 15 versts from Yam Zapolsky — a village located near Pskov, — a diplomatic act was signed that actually put an end to the longest and most difficult war in our history. 
From a formal point of view, the Livonian War, which began in 1558, smoldered for another year and a half: Russia sluggishly fought with Sweden until May 1583. The rest was already a matter of technique. Her name is — Stefan Batory, who, having become the king of the Commonwealth, added a significant appendage to the available forces of his state: a huge contingent of mercenaries, mainly Germans, who were then rightly considered the best strike force and often decided the fate of European conflicts. To the boyar son Leonty Shevrigin, known by the nickname Istoma, was instructed to convey to the Pope Gregory XIII the curious thoughts of the Russian Tsar. There was no flattery, no subservience, not even a request for help. Or not? 
In fact, that treaty fixed the actual victory of the Russian kingdom. For some reason, many believe that that war was started by Russia because of access to the Baltic Sea and ended in failure: the loss of this very exit. Counterattack of the Pskov garrison. On the eve of the famous massacre, Possevino published the book “Christian Warrior”, where he wrote that every soldier fighting heretics — the hero who died in this struggle — martyr, and the slightest mercy — the crime. There were, of course, local defeats, but in general, until 1577, the Russian kingdom confidently led on points. Accordingly, the Yam-Zapolsky treaty is declared shameful and humiliating. One of the most dexterous and fanatical Jesuits, who made an amazingly fast career in the order: his name in those days was a real scarecrow for all the enemies of the Catholic Church. Militarily, the Livonian War looked something like this. For example, the French ambassador in Rome Paul de Foix wrote in those days to Catherine de Medici: “Now our main hopes should be placed on the speedy conclusion of peace between Poland and Muscovy, for which the Saint A mediator has been sent there by the throne.”
The personality of this intermediary speaks about how seriously the words of the Russian tsar were taken. The siege of Pskov by the troops of Stefan Batory. Until a certain point, the troops of Ivan the Terrible ironed the Livonians, Lithuanians, Poles and Swedes as they wanted. But a draw after 24 years of bloody war still does not look very prestigious. In reality, the power of Ivan the Terrible owned a vast stretch of the Baltic coast both before and after the Livonian War.