Kievan Rus. How did the Old Russian state arise?


One thing is clear — both of them had similar ideas about law and about the state. True, different — linguists count at least twenty differences between the ancient South Russian, that is, the Kyiv dialect, and the Novgorod dialect. The new residents call their city Ladoga. 
North vs South
The beginning and end of the path took shape. But a hundred years later, it was already a completely independent structure. And absolutely in vain. The 8th century can safely be called the “age of the crescent.” Muslims took possession of Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Libya, Tripolitania, the countries of the Maghreb and Spain. That is, at any time could reconsider priorities. The idea of ​​the southern start of Russian statehood was so actively promoted that the marginal term “Kievan Rus”, which arose in the 19th century, was revived in the USSR. Things were different in the North. The Ladoga Slavs called on Rurik not as a source of statehood, but as a hired worker — a “row” was established with him, that is, an agreement. It seemed shameful to count the beginning of statehood from the calling of some foreigners. Attention and activity is transferred to the periphery of Europe. The 14th-century Arab economist, philosopher, and historian Ibn Khaldun boastfully wrote: “In those days, Christians could not even let a plank float on the sea.” The control of trade between the Western kingdoms, Byzantium and the countries of the East was now carried out by Muslims — on frankly onerous conditions. What does the inscription on the famous monument “The Millennium of Russia” testify to, which was opened and consecrated in Novgorod on September 21, 1862, during a large-scale holiday. 
Novgorod or Kyiv? Its adherents between the concepts of «statehood» and “state” put an equal sign. How far has its statehood managed to develop there — not very clear. At that time, Constantinople did not conclude any agreements with Kyiv — too much honor. “The people, barbaric, having the audacity of weapons and therefore overly proud, raised their hand against the Roman power itself.” That is, gopniks and nouveau riches, and not a geopolitical subject. This date, associated with a specific the first prince named Rurik, has long been considered the day of the beginning of the Russian state as such. Apparently, at first he depended on the Khazar Khaganate. The sovereign did not come by train, but “came by water” — just as once the Varangians “from across the sea” on their ships. An exception was made for the emperor of the Franks — he was a Christian, was regarded as almost equal and was called the “Bright Archon”. In 911, Oleg concludes the first written agreement with Byzantium. Not without reliance on the term “Kievan Rus” the understanding of Kyiv and its inhabitants as the only center of the ancient Russian state, as a unique cultural torch, as the center of the universe, immediately arose, and the local authorities officially approved it. In the south, this led to the fact that a not very large Slavic settlement on the right bank of the Dnieper in the 8th century grows, expands, acquires a fortification on Starokievsky Hill and, in fact, gets the name Kyiv. Rurik's successor Oleg, nicknamed the Prophet, captures Kyiv and physically eliminates the local princes, his fellow tribesmen-competitors. But in the same place, another town appears with a different, already Slavic population, who came from the interfluve of the Vistula and the Oder. To understand how the Old Russian state developed, one must rewind from the calling of Rurik a hundred years ago. However, in 765, disaster struck the town. He instantly establishes trade relations with the Byzantine Crimea. And Andrei Bogolyubsky, the son of the founder of Moscow Yuri Dolgoruky, will take this city only for the purpose of robbery. 
But the attitude towards Novgorod was different. The scenario of those celebrations with every little detail emphasized the role of Rurik in the foundation of the Russian state — even the arrival in Novgorod of Emperor Alexander IIwas furnished with a clear hint of continuity. Sometimes they also wanted to rob him. In the XIV century, when Russia was in heavy political and financial dependence on the Horde, Prince Simeon the Proud found funds for the construction of a stone temple on the Rurik settlement, which is 2 versts from Novgorod Detinets. In 911, the Russian prince Oleg came into his company. But in Byzantium, Kyiv was not taken seriously. Equal treaty: “We, emperors and princes, strive to live in peace and love, not only by word, but by scripture and by a firm oath.” The treaty for Russia is very flattering. From rags to riches
Then Europe was brought to the brink of an economic disaster. Geography dictated the only option — East European Plain. And in a festive speech addressed to the Novgorod nobility, Alexander II openly called Novgorod “the cradle of the All-Russian Kingdom.”
Subsequently, the official historical doctrine changed. With the Khazars — yes, with the Bulgarians — Yes, but what is Kyiv? What used to be considered the periphery, the bear corner and the “end of geography” suddenly found itself at the center of the current economic agenda. 
For the possession of the key places of this trade artery, which would later be called the “Road from the Varangians to the Greeks,” a grandiose fight unfolded. A structure providing for transcontinental trade has emerged. Sonorous and biting, from frequent use it began to be perceived as an objective reality. 
Which has done a disservice in recent years. New Russian reality
And they speak quite differently with the united Novgorod-Kyiv state. Simeon himself was considered the Grand Duke of Vladimir. However, while the trade artery was profitable, and Byzantium was strong and rich, Kyiv remained a coveted prize in internecine wars — fought for the throne of Kyiv. Everything else was declared a “Finno-Ugric swamp”, and the inhabitants of the historical ancient Russian regions were automatically transferred to the category of “backward”. The Arabs captured the key points of the Mediterranean Sea, Sardinia, Sicily and Crete, controlled the coast of France and Italy. The request to search for the domestic roots of statehood naturally led to Kyiv, where at the time of Rurik's calling there was an urban tribal center. He is captured by a strong enemy. The southern section of the future “Roads from the Varangians to the Greeks” set up and started working. And here we have to admit that the conditional north won a convincing victory. Apparently, similar processes were going on in Kyiv, as evidenced by the Scandinavian names of the Kyiv princes — Askoldand Dir. 
Now it was necessary to find out the main — which of these two centers will finally close the main trading artery of Europe. At first, the Scandinavians dominated there. The town of Aldeygya, on a cape between the Volkhov and Ladozhka rivers, becomes the key that opens and closes a new promising trade artery. As you know, nationalists are obsessed with delusions of their own grandeur. From that moment on, we can talk about the formation of the Russian state. In general, it could pass for a kind of state. There was very little — to lay between them a more or less suitable and safe path. Besides, it has nothing to do with reality. The most interesting thing is that the Rurik dynasty, having made Kyiv a capital city mainly for economic reasons, did not consider it as something sacred for themselves. They could fight with him. Rate the material
Источник aif.ru Its walls were cut down no earlier than 753. Indeed — no matter how rich, influential and militant Kyiv itself may have been, it has not achieved international recognition. The original population — the Scandinavian tribe of the Svei, who later gave the name to the whole country, Sweden. In fact, the Greeks called pagan leaders “archons”, that is, “tribal leaders”, and considered second-class people. He sat in Moscow. Such an attitude is absurd and dangerous. He, an inveterate pagan, is also called the “Bright Archon”, equating to the emperor of the Franks — “To the Lord of the West”. But a few centuries later, the situation changed. 1160 years ago, in September 862, an event took place that went down in Russian history as the calling of the Varangians to reign in the lands of the north of Russia. The source of power was not an alien prince, but the people. But I thought it necessary to remind you that the capitals are changing, but the sacred places remain unchanged. The Slavs did it. It was necessary to look for new, alternative, workarounds. Prince Svyatoslavgenerally stated: “I don’t like to sit in Kyiv, I want to live in Pereyaslavets on the Danube — there is the middle of my land, there flows all good. The basins of the Black and Baltic Seas suddenly become centers of attraction. But what the first Novgorod princes did for Russia was always remembered. Yes, in 860 a raid on Constantinople was carried out from there, setting up the “capital of the world”; to the brink of disaster. This clarification of relations became the main content of the history of the first centuries of Russia. A layer of fire is fixed, the development of the former culture is stopped.